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Five agricultural systems were selected for the study: a soil culture of Brassica rapa, a soil culture of Sinapis arvensis, a field of B. rapa, a field of S. arvensis, and an orchard of B. rapa. The density of the wild cabbage root flies was monitored in different crop plants in each agricultural system. The fly population migrated from the crop plants to surrounding plants during the growing season. The dispersal rate of the wild cabbage root flies in soil culture of Brassica rapa and Sinapis arvensis was estimated at 6.33% and 4.33% respectively, indicating that the fly population migrated through the plant system in each season. The dispersal rate of the wild cabbage root flies in the field of B. rapa was estimated at 0.33%, indicating that the fly population migrated through the crop plants but not in surrounding plants. The dispersal rate of the wild cabbage root flies in the orchard of B. rapa was estimated at 6.67%, indicating that the fly population migrated through the crop plants and was also dispersed by wind during the growing season. Buckwheat is a well-established, nutritious food crop for animals. Here, we obtained genome-wide DNA polymorphisms in three homozygous lines and two different inbred lines of buckwheat and compared their genetic diversity in combination with their genome-wide linkage maps. The inbred lines were derived from two distinct genetic backgrounds, GK (Ganliangkou, a Chinese landrace) and Shuanghong (a Chinese landrace). DNA polymorphisms were identified based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The level of genetic diversity based on the microsatellite data was higher than that based on the SNP data. High-density linkage maps with a total of 765 loci on seven chromosomes were constructed based on SNP and SSR markers. We identified 50 common SNPs and 69 SSRs that were highly polymorphic and could be used as molecular markers to analyze the genetic diversity of these inbred lines and other buckwheat accessions. These markers will be valuable tools for further genetic studies of buckwheat, especially in molecular breeding programs. Molecular markers linked with agronomically important traits are of great importance for marker-assisted selection (MAS), which is a widely adopted genetic breeding method in most high-yield crop species including wheat. Despite great efforts, however

 

 


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